Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. The term was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808 and literally means the medical treatment of the mind (psych-: mind; from ancient Greek psyche: soul; -iatry: medical treatment; from Gk. Iatrikos: medical, iasthai: to heal). A medical doctor specializing in psychiatry is a psychiatrist.